Ka 27 and modifications
Successful operation of helicopters Ka-25 in the Navy showed their role in the system ASW warships, but their options were limited by insufficient capacity. So in 1969 the Bureau under the leadership of chief designer N. And.Kamov has begun development of a new, more lifting helicopter with enhanced functionality. Using the experience of the development of the helicopter Ka-25, the Bureau has retained for his new helicopter layout, essentially elaborating it with regard to many years of operating experience.
As the power plant, it was decided to use two turboshaft GTE TVZ-227 with a free power turbine takeoff power but created in Leningrad KB under the leadership of chief designer S. P. Izotova. Through the use of a more powerful power plant and new bearing screws of larger diameter load capacity of the new helicopter was increased up to 4000kg, two and a half times more than the Ka-25, and was provided with the possibility of operating in a wide range of elevated temperatures and in high humidity conditions, i.e., operation in all areas of the oceans.
The crew depending on the purpose of the helicopter should consist of two or three people: pilot and Navigator, and if necessary – Navigator-operator. For helicopter developed new flight-navigation complexes, allowing the crew to solve tasks day and night, in various weather conditions and at a great distance from the ship-based, and new search and targeting system for the various search tools and detection of submarines and anti-submarine weapons to defeat.
The first prototype helicopter, initially received the designation Ka-252, made its first flight on December 24, 1973 (test pilot I. E. Erusin), after the death of N. And.Kamov 24 November 1973. The helicopter’s development continued under the leadership of chief designer S. C. Mikheeva. The development of electronic equipment were supervised by the Deputy chief designer I. A. Ehrlich. Serial production was started in 1977 by helicopter plant, in Kumertau.
After passing the flight test and acceptance on the Navy’s new helicopter has received the designation Ka-27. In the process of testing was solved compatibility problem is the mutual adaptation of the helicopter systems and vehicle carrier. By 1981 the Ka-27 helicopters were deployed on the destroyers and missile cruisers, the helicopter carrier “Kiev”, “Minsk”, “Novorossiysk” and “Baku”, and then on an aircraft carrier ship “Admiral Kuznetsov”. The helicopters were delivered also the Navy of India and Yugoslavia, under the designation Ka-28.
Multipurpose helicopter Ka-27 became the base for the development of a number of modifications and collection of new helicopters, including:
Ka-PL main ship anti-submarine helicopter of the Navy of Russia; entered service in 1982; delivered more than 100 helicopters. The crew of three: pilot, Navigator coordinator and operator of the anti-submarine systems. Helicopters normally operate in pairs: one detects the submarine, the other strikes, providing anti-submarine defense on the area about km. On the combat effectiveness Ka-PL surpass Ka-PL 3-5 times.
Ka-PS – ship rescue helicopter
Ka-29 – ship transport-combat helicopter
Ka-31 – ship helicopter radar watch
Ka-40 – draft of a new anti-submarine helicopter, which is the development of the helicopter Ka-27 with two CCD TBA-300 takeoff power kW and maximum takeoff weight 14-15t, will be equipped with new equipment and weapons.
DESIGN. The helicopter, a twin-screw coaxial configuration with two CCD and four legged chassis. On designs similar to the Ka-25, is large fuselage to the main cabin larger capacity.
Rotor blades are aligned, three-lobed, with folding blades, the diameter of the bearing screws increased to 15.9 m, the distance between the bearing screws in height up to 1.4 m Blades main rotors with spar from plasticopedia have a rectangular shape in plan, the chord of the blade 0.48 m, profile NACA 230, to the spar glued sections, forming a bearing surface length 5.45 PM
Chassis four legged, non-retractable, as in Ka-25; on the Ka-31 front and main bearings biased so as not to interfere with a rotating radar antenna. Track chassis front supports 1.4 m (2.41 m for CA-31), the main pillars of 3.5 m, the base chassis 3.02 m
The power plant consists of two CCD TVZ-117 takeoff power 2 x kt developed for helicopters Mi-8MT, Mi-17 and Mi-24. GTE installed near the top of the fuselage, as on Ka-25.
Main gearbox designed for more power than the Ka-25, and was specifically designed for helicopters Ka-27 and Ka-29, and then Ka-32.
Equipment. As part of the search-shock complex has radar, Radome which is located in the forward fuselage. Anti-submarine equipment of the new generation includes search and sighting system “Octopus” with a search radar, Doppler velocity meter and demolition, drop hydroacoustic station, placed in the rear part of the fuselage, radiohydroacoustic buoys and the magnetic detector. Flight-navigation complex has a high level of automation using a computer, and allows you to resolve combat missions day and night, in VFR and IFR weather conditions, at large distances from ship-based. There are autopilot, direction finder and system data. Can be installed markers, smoke generators and radio beacons-responders.
The main purpose based on warships heavy helicopter Ka-27 is the detection and defeat of submarines. The helicopter can also be used for search and rescue operations, evacuation of the wounded and transport of emergency supplies.
Ka-27 is a further development of anti-submarine helicopter Ka-25 and performed on traditional for EDB N. And. Kamov two coaxial scheme. The first flight of the prototype, which had the designation Ka-252 was made on 24 December 1973. Mass production was carried out on a helicopter plant in, Kumertau since 1977.
Underlying the design of the helicopter coaxial configuration without steering screw provides greater maneuverability improves safety when they are executed with ships and gives the helicopter compactness, which is especially important when basing it on the ships of the class “destroyer”.
Relatively high fuselage of the helicopter has a length of only 11.3 m At the front is the cockpit, which chairs the Navigator and pilot, are close by. Under the cockpit is mounted airborne radar with the antenna closed radiotransparent Radome. The middle part of the fuselage is cargo compartment, under the floor which has a spacious compartment for placement of anti-submarine weapons. In the rear part of the fuselage has a compartment to put hydroacoustic station. The fuselage ends with a short tail beam with a tail in the form of uncontrolled stabilizer and two rudders.
The helicopter has a four-leg retractable chassis. In case of emergency landing on water on the sides of the fuselage under special doors are inflatable balloon-you, filling the air for 4-6 seconds and provides the helicopter with the necessary buoyancy.
Consisting of two gas turbine engines TV3-117 power unit placed under the middle part of the fuselage. The capacity of each of the engines is sufficient to continue the flight on one engine. For stand-alone engine starting power plant of the helicopter includes a turbocharger AI-9. The capacity of the fuel system is l for refueling takes 16 minutes.
Coaxial main rotors of a helicopter having three folding blades, spars made from ug-lplastic. High power to weight ratio in combination with an effective carrier system provides the use of a helicopter in a wide range of elevated temperatures and high humidity. The helicopter is able to fly with limited space at the speed of the air flow of up to 20m/s, the side and keel rolling up to 8 and 2°, respectively.
Installed on the helicopter flight and navigation equipment provides high-precision navigation solution of the tasks of the day and night, in simple and adverse weather conditions over devoid of landmarks area. It makes it possible for an automatic withdrawal of the helicopter at the point of application of the reset means of the search and destruction of submarines. Precision autopilot allows the helicopter for a long time to hang in automatic mode with stabilization of a given height, which is necessary when working with drop hydroacoustic station.
For anti-submarine warfare helicopter comes equipped with a sighting system “Octopus-e”, allows the detection of a submarine, the determination of its coordinates and motion parameters and recommendations on the use of weapons. System “Octopus-e” consists of the following subsystems: sonar (radioacoustic buoys, drop sonar HCV-3), indicating navigation and tactical situation, information and computing (with on-Board digital computing machine with a speed of 150 thousand operations per second). The system allows for one hour to examine the water surface area to km.
To defeat submarines in the weapons bays are anti-submarine torpedoes at-1MV, depth charges, bombs caliber from 50 to 250 kg On the helicopter can be fitted well managed anti-submarine rocket APR-2E.
In General, the helicopter Ka-27 more than 3-5 times (depending on the tasks) surpasses its predecessor Ka-PL. On the basis of the Ka-27 was developed following modifications:
Ka-PL – ship anti-submarine helicopter entered service in 1981;
Ka-28 – export option, since June 1986 put naval forces of other countries about 30 units;
Ka-PS – helicopter for search and rescue operations;
Ka-29 – transport-combat helicopter for the marine corps;
Ka-31 helicopter complex radar watch with a rotating antenna search radar mounted under the fuselage. The complex is able to detect and track up to 20 targets at the distance of 100-150 km;
Ka-32 – multi-purpose helicopter that served as the basis for the creation of a number of specialized modifications.
Technical data Ka-27
Crew: 2-3, power plant: 2 x CCD TV3-117 NGO them. Klimov power but, the main rotors diameter: 15.9 m, fuselage length: 11.3 m, height: 5.4 m, gross weight: kg, maximum speed: 270km/h, cruising speed: 230km/h, dynamic ceiling: 4300m, range: 800km, duration: 4.5 hours
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